Diabetes Facts & Figures

  • 8% of the U.S. population has type 2 diabetes.
  • World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that diabetes-related deaths will increase by more than 50% over the next ten years.
  • 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes also have sleep apnea.1

Defining Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes

 

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is marked by a gradual decline in glucose tolerance. The disease usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which insulin is produced by the pancreas but is not used effectively by the body. Over time, pancreatic beta cell production of insulin may decline.

A diagnosis of diabetes is made when the following results occur upon re-testing:

  • A fasting blood glucose level of > 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL)
  • An oral glucose tolerance test level of >200 mg/dL

Pre-Diabetes

Patients with pre-diabetes are at significant health risk. These patients have impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or both.

  • IFG: Blood glucose is 100-125 mg/dL in fasting plasma glucose test
  • IGT: Blood glucose is 140-199 mg/dL in oral glucose tolerance test

Studies indicate that people with pre-diabetes, like those with type 2 diabetes, are at increased risk of hypertension, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The increased risk of cardiovascular disease is independent of progression to type 2 diabetes.

The majority of patients with pre-diabetes will progress to type 2 diabetes within ten years. Intervention programs focused on diet and exercise can slow or prevent this progression.

For patients with pre-diabetes who have sleep apnea, treatment of their sleep apnea can mitigate their risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and may help in the management of their pre-diabetes.2,3,4

The American Diabetes Association estimates that the economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2007, including medical expenses and lost productivity, was $174 billion.

Sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes share an association with several significant comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Effective treatment of sleep apnea can positively affect blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes.

1 Einhorn D, et al. Endocrine Pract 2007;13:355-62
2 Becker HF, et al. Circulation 2003;107:68-73
3 Peker Y, et al. Sleep 1997;20:645-53
4 Harsch IA, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:156-62